Sunday, June 29, 2014

CIB investigating sexual abuse of Balmandir girls (The Himalayan Times)

CIB investigating sexual abuse of Balmandir girls

Says it is gathering supportive documents

The Himalayan Times


KATHMANDU: The Central Investigation Bureau of Nepal police has said it is collecting supportive documents in relation to an alleged sexual abuse case in Balmandir, a children’s home based in Kathmandu.

Following a complaint lodged by Action for Child Rights International-Nepal (ACRI-Nepal), an INGO, the apex investigating body of the law enforcement agency on June 17 had detained Rabin Shrestha, a previous employee of Balmandir, and Rabin Chalise, incumbent president of Balmandir Club, an NGO, on charge of sexually abusing three young girls of Balmandir. “We are collecting supportive documents. If they are found guilty, they will certainly face legal action,” said SP Suresh Bikram Shah of CIB said. “Investigation into the case is under way.” Kathmandu District Court has already remanded the duo to custody.

“As per the law, we can put the accused in custody for a maximum of 25 days. If they are found guilty in course of investigation, we will produce them before court within next 20 days,” added SP Shah, stopping short of giving further details on ongoing investigation.

According to ACRI-N, it had reported the case after receiving the ‘testimonies’ of three young girls, who were living in Balmandir, with allegations of repeated rape and abuse. Acting on the report, CIB had earlier arrested three main suspects for interrogation but had later released one.

For more on the scandal, see Pound Pup Legacy:

Nepal — Rabin Shrestha (alleged child rapist) & Action for Child Rights International

Ethics, Transparency, Support
~ What All Adoptions Deserve.

Child predators detained (Nepali Times)

Child predators detained

Nepali Times

Saturday, June 28th, 2014

Two men working in an orphanage in Kathmandu have been arrested and are facing trial next week accused of sexually abusing children in their charge.

Rabin Shrestha, former head of the adoptions at Bal Mandir, and Rabin Chalise, an ex-student who ran a Youth Club at the shelter, were arrested by the Central Investigation Bureau (CIB) last week after child rights activists presented evidence of repeated rape and abuse of girls and boys at the orphanage.

Shrestha had been arrested before in 2012 after a British woman lodged a complaint against him for allegedly raping a five-year-old blind girl that she was going to adopt.

“I tried to adopt her, but Shrestha told me I couldn’t do that. He wanted me to sponsor her instead and told me I would get a decision after she turned 16,” the mother told Nepali Times this week.

A Bal Mandir caretaker had informed her then that the girl was bleeding, and after examination a doctor confirmed she had been raped. Shrestha and Chalise are now also accused of also raping three other autistic girls at Bal Mandir, using other orphans for prostitution, and also abusing two young boys. Another unknown accomplice is at large.

The three men introduced themselves to the children as Bollywood film stars Amitabh and Abhisek Bachchan and would lure them into drinking alcohol and watching pornography before abusing them, activists say.

They would organise 'wedding ceremonies' every Saturday and dress the girls in red saris and play brass-band wedding music. One of them would spray water on the girls, who would then be forced to take off their wet clothes. This occurred during the afternoons, when Shrestha got a free pass at the orphanage. In the evenings, Shrestha used to take the children to a bar in Thamel where they were groomed to be prostitutes, according to children's accounts.

These detailed testimonies were presented to the CIB by child rights activists from ACR-Int (Action for Child Rights International). The evidence was cross-checked for veracity, and was so compelling that Shrestha and Chalise were arrested right away.

The British woman, who did not want to be named, also says her vision-impaired adopted daughter was tortured while in the shelter and suffered psychological trauma. She used to be tied up and hung from a tree, or lowered into a hole in the ground.

Both Shrestha and Chalise have denied the allegations and the Nepal Children’s Organisation that runs the Bal Mandir orphanage says neither men are involved with the orphanage. This is contrary to the British woman’s testimony that Shrestha had met her about adoption procedures. The CIB refused to comment because it said investigations were still ongoing.

Shrestha and Chalise were remanded in custody for another week on Thursday, and are due to appear in court on 3 July. The scandal follows a series of reports of abuse and trafficking at orphanages and shelters in Kathmandu.

The Bal Mandir is responsible for over 600 children in 11 homes across Nepal and is administered by the Nepal Children’s Organisation which has been mired in charges of corruption and abuse. In 2010, the Australian charity Mitrataa Foundation which had agreed to manage the orphanages pulled out because of corruption and mismanagement.

'Unfortunately, due to severe corruption within NCO, we had to cancel the project as we were not confident that we would be able to deliver on the objectives without risking Mitrataa’s reputation as an organisation that refuses to pay bribes,' the charity says in an online post.

Sunir Pandey and Trishna Rana

For more on the scandal, see Pound Pup Legacy:

Nepal — Rabin Shrestha (alleged child rapist) & Action for Child Rights International

Ethics, Transparency, Support
~ What All Adoptions Deserve.

Friday, June 27, 2014

Nepal adoptions chief raped and groomed orphans for prostitution (The Daily Telegraph)

Nepal adoptions chief raped and groomed orphans for prostitution, claims British teacher

The Daily Telegraph

A British woman who adopted a five year old blind girl from a Nepalese orphanage believes she uncovered an abuse and vice ring after her new daughter said she’d been raped every Saturday

By Dean Nelson, New Delhi and Anil Giri in Kathmandu

27 Jun 2014

The former head of international adoptions at Nepal’s largest orphanage is in custody over allegations that he raped young girls and groomed them as prostitutes in Kathmandu dance bars.

One of the alleged victims was a five-year-old blind girl who who was later adopted by a British teacher. Three others suffer from autism and severe learning difficulties.

According to the girls, they and two young boys at the orphanage were sexually abused and raped every Saturday when the adoptions chief, Rabin Shrestha and his friend throw ‘birthday’ and ‘wedding’ parties at Kathmandu's Bal Mandir children’s home.

The older girls, aged 13 and 14, were dressed in bridal gowns and then made to consummate their "marriages" with Shrestha and an associate. They were also forced to sexually abuse two four year old boys, it is claimed.

The allegations emerged after a British special needs teacher visited the orphanage and became concerned for a five-year-old blind girl who was neglected by staff. She and her niece were told not to hold the girl because her blindness would bring “bad karma”.

Related Articles

Indian preacher and the fake orphan scandal 

28 Oct 2011

Nepal admits half its orphanages 'selling' children for adoption by couples abroad 

12 Mar 2007

Orphanages in 'children for sale' racket 

10 Mar 2007

The teacher, who married a Nepali man in the early 1990s, later adopted the girl but during the adoption process a female "house mother" told her the girl had been bleeding heavily from her genitals.

The girl initially said she had fallen but later told her that she and Shrestha were lovers who fed each other plums. “’I know Rabin uncle and he is my lover, he feeds me plums and I feed him plums and he touches me and I touch him’, she told me”, the teacher told campaigners.

When her daughter was alone with him, he threw "birthday tea" parties at which he sexually abused and raped her, and when she was with the older girls he would stage "wedding ceremonies" in which they would be raped and forced to abuse two young boys.

The experience had left her daughter psychologically damaged. “She now thinks that every Saturday is her birthday”, she said, and is terrified by the sound of Nepali wedding bands. “If she hears the band in the street she covers her ears and crouches down on the ground and screams”, she told children’s rights activists.

The girls were regularly taken to "dance bars" in Kathmandu’s seedy Thamel red light district where they were given alcoholic drinks and groomed as prostitutes.

Mr Shrestha and another orphanage official were arrested and taken into custody last week after the campaign group Action for Child Rights International (ACR-Int) handed over a dossier of evidence to the police.

Superintendent Pitamber Adhikari of Nepal’s Central Investigation Bureau confirmed the arrests and said the two men are under investigation. They have denied the allegations against them while the Bal Mandir home rejected any connection with them. The suspects are expected to appear in court next week.

The British teacher said she could not comment on the case until after next week’s hearing.

Lieutenant-Colonel (Rtd) Philip Holmes, a leading anti-child abuse trafficking campaigner said the sexual abuse alleged at Bal Mandir was widespread in Nepal.

“This case is by no means unique and we will continue to support ACR-Int as it rescues children and brings paedophiles to justice”, he said.

For more on the scandal, see PEAR Nepal:

Nepal Children's Organization -- former head of NCO/Bal Mandir adoptions arrested for child rape

Ethics, Transparency, Support
~ What All Adoptions Deserve.

Monday, June 23, 2014

Nepal Children's Organization -- former head of NCO/Bal Mandir adoptions arrested for child rape

Nepal Children's Organization -- former head of NCO/Bal Mandir adoptions arrested for child rape.

Kathmandu Post:

Two held on rape charge

KATHMANDU: Two suspects have been arrested behind alleged rape of three young girls living in a public orphanage, Nepal Children’s Organisation, popularly known as Balmandir. Police arrested Rabin Shrestha, a former employee of Balmandir, and Rabin Chalise, the current president of Balmandir Club, following the complaints of rape and sexual abuse at the orphanage lodged by Action for Child Rights International-Nepal. (PR) 

Posted on: 2014-06-21 08:54

Action for Child Rights International Nepal

Press Release:

Police Investigate Rape at Orphanage

KATHMANDU, June 20th, 2014. Action for Child Rights International-Nepal (ACRI/Nepal) feels obliged to break the silence regarding the current police investigation into the alleged abuse of three young girls, due to the ongoing harassments directed at the organization.

On Tuesday, June 17th, 2014, ACRI/Nepal received the testimonies of three young girls who are residents of Nepal Children’s Organization, Balmandir, with allegations of repeated rape and abuse. Due to the severity of the allegations, ACRI/Nepal felt it necessary to report the incidents to the Central Investigation Bureau (CIB) immediately.

Based on the horrific nature of the testimonies given by the girls, describing the vulgar acts repeatedly taken upon them, the CIB brought the three main suspects in for questioning that same day.

The initial investigation and medical evidence proved strong enough for the police to arrest two of the suspects; Rabin Shrestha, a previous employee of Balmandir, and Rabin Chalise, the current president of the NGO Balmandir Club and previous student of Balmandir. Both are currently being held in custody as the investigation continues.

Although ACRI/Nepal is greatly impressed by the professionalism and drive of the CIB investigators working on the case, we are concerned about the onslaught of harassments directed toward them and our own team.

After receiving the testimonies of the young girls, ACRI/Nepal considered it our ethical duty and responsibility to report such information to the authorities, as it would be of any other person or organization.

Regardless of how shocked those involved may be at the moment, we have faith that all parties will fully cooperate with the CIB and police and take the responsibility of supporting the investigation. Not only to prosecute the accused and support the victims, but to ensure the safety to all of the other young girls currently living in Balmandir.

Therefore, ACRI/Nepal requests that all those involved will regain their composure and immediately stop the unnecessary harassments directed toward the CIB, police and our team. The only thing being asked is the opportunity for the police to carry out a professional investigation. There are no ulterior motives or personal attacks directed toward any specific person or organization. The only concern of ACRI/Nepal is that of the victims and their right to justice.

About Action for Child Rights International Nepal

Action for Child Rights International Nepal is a nonprofit organization dedicated to defending the rights of children and their families in Nepal. Our main focus is on children whose rights have been violated while under the care of child care institutions. With teams in Antwerp and Kathmandu, ACRI/Nepal utilizes its international strength to apply pressure where needed and take the necessary actions to defend each victim individually. Through strategic public campaigns, both locally and internationally, ACRI/Nepal strives to inform the public on the ongoing issues facing child protection issues and provide solutions and resources for those in need. For more information, please visit:

Media Information

Contact: Salina Tamang
Address: Chunnebhairab Marg, Kuleshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal

Ex-Bal Mandir Employee, Student Held On Rape Charge


KATHMANDU, June 18: Two individuals previously associated with Nepal Children's Organization (NCO), one of the country's oldest orphanages, have been taken under control by police for investigations into a rape charge leveled against them by three minor girls.

The Central Investigation Bureau (CIB) of Nepal Police arrested a former NCO student and a former NCO employee - identified as Rabin Chalise and Rabin Shrestha respectively - after three minor girls living in NCO´s Naxal orphanage, also known as Nepal Bal Mandir, complained about being sexually exploited.

SP Pitambar Adhikari, spokesperson for the CIB, confirmed the arrest of Chalise and Shrestha but refused to divulge details. "Both are now in our custody for investigations," said Adhikari. "But, we are not yet in a position to divulge any details."

A team of CIB officials had arrested the two on Tuesday. The same day, the CIB, in coordination with the Central Child Welfare Board (CCWB), shifted the three minor girls to a safe house run by some other NGO. All three girls are believed to be below 15 years of age. They say they had been facing exploitation for a long time but mustered the courage to speak up only recently.

Subash Pokharel, general secretary of NCO, however, maintained that none of the girls living in any Bal Mandir orphanage has had to be rescued in recent weeks. "All the girls are with us," he said. He also claimed that neither Chalishe nor Shrestha are associated with the NCO. "I don´t know what ties they had with NCO in the past," he said. "They are currently not affiliated with us. Whether they had any ties with the NCO in the past makes no difference. Whatever they do should not be linked with us."

However, sources said that Chalishe is chairman of a club of former NCO students and enjoyed easy access to the Bal Mandir orphanages. As for Pokharel´s denial of rescue of the three minor girls, a CIB official involved in the investigation said that the girls are officially still with NCO. "They have been shifted just for the time being," said the official. "We did it considering the possibility that their continuing stay at the same orphanage might affect our investigations in some way."

The CIB swung into action after Action for Child Rights International (ACRI), an NGO, drew police attention to the matter. In a statement issued on Friday, ACRI said that initial investigations and medical evidence were strong enough ground for the police to arrest Chalishe and Shrestha.

Published on 2014-06-20 22:00:00

Rabin Shrestha (one of the alleged child rapists) was the longtime head of NCO/Bal Mandir adoptions.

October 2012:

Rabin Shrestha
Act. Section Chief
Adoption Section
Nepal Children’s Organization
Bal Mandir, Naxal, P.O. Box: 6967 Kathmandu Nepal Tel: 977-1-4410844 Fax: 977-1-4414485


Photo -- Rabin (on left) receiving educational materials for Bal Mandir:


NCO website (Internet Archive -- June 2010):

Rabin Shrestha

Acting Chief, Adoption Section

Even back in 2004, Rabin was working for NCO -- here helping an American family adopt a son:

'Who are you here for?'

Vail Daily

KATHMANDU, Nepal - It was almost two years to the day after we started taking adoption classes that Yogendra first pointed his smile directly at us. A human sunbeam. After flying halfway around the world, we were jet-lagged, over-caffeinated and jumpy. After two years of frustration, filling out forms and riding an emotional roller coaster, we were finally in Bal Mandir orphanage (pronounced "Ball Mandeer"). When you climb out of the car at the orphanage's front doors, adorable children rush up to you shouting, "What country? What country?" "America," we responded. "Ah, America!" they replied. "Who are you here for?" "Yogendra," we answered. "Yogendra is going to America!" they shout excitedly to each other, bouncing up and down. A child brought to Bal Mandir the same day as Yogendra was on his way to Italy. Another girl they know is on her way to Spain. A girl from another orphanage, whose adopting parents were on the same flights to Kathmandu as we were, is in Oklahoma. She seemed happy to go. They all seem happy to go. Chatting nervously with orphanage director Rabin Shrestha in his office, I caught a glimpse out of the corner of my eye: A tiny boy appeared from around the corner, materializing all eyes and smile. He stood smiling for a moment, crawled into my lap, put his head on my shoulder and whispered, "daddy." We hugged and I passed him over to my wife. He put his arms around her neck and whispered, "mommy." We passed him over to our 13-year-old daughter, Morgan. He wrapped his arms around her and whispered "diddi," the Nepalese word for older sister.

I was a puddle, everyone was in tears, even Rabin who sees this every day. I looked at Yogi and said, of all things: "What color car do you want?" Adopting an older child from a foreign country is a little like picking up a lay-away package. You pay some fees, fill out a couple final forms and they hand him over. From that moment on, he's yours. The problems this one came with were medical and minor, not emotional, though all the experts tell us he's supposed of have a bunch of abandonment and attachment issues. About an hour and a half later, my daughter, Morgan, was carrying him in her arms out Bal Mandir's front doors while I followed, filming the event. He smiled and waved to the camera, he smiled and waved to the other kids, he smiled and waved to the staff. He jumped into the car to leave forever. Moments later, the driver motored out Bal Mandir's front gates with Yogendra in the back seat facing forward toward his new life. He did not look back. He did not stop smiling. Bleak choices About 10 days later, the night before we were to fly to Colorado on the other side of the world, we struck up a conversation with a bellman in our hotel. He asked Yogendra if he knew what was happening the next day. In Nepalese he replied, "I'm getting on an airplane and going to America with my family." That bellman was about the only Nepali Yogendra would talk to, so we asked him to prod the boy for a little of his life's story. It's not a happy story. As close as anyone can place it, he's 5, which means he's not old enough to remember much of the turmoil engulfing the country - the Maoist revolution to overthrow Nepal's government. His home province, however, was one of the first places the Maoists swept through. He said his parents are old, although it's not clear if he's talking about his Nepali parents or us. He said his mother is dead, and that a man - some sort of male authority figure - brought him to Kathmandu.

He told the bellman, in Nepalese, that he's from a part of Nepal called Jumla. He said it took a long time to travel. "Days," he said, although he is not sure how many. We scrambled for a map and with the bellman's help we learned that Jumla is both a province and a village in remote western Nepal. The bellman patiently explained that the village is at least a two-day walk from the nearest passable road. Yogendra and the man who hauled him had to get to that road, where they could catch a bus. They rode that bus at least two days to reach Kathmandu. It took a day or so for the man to learn the best part of the city in which he could leave Yogendra so the boy would be found quickly. With a Himalayan winter approaching and unrest all around, the choices appeared bleak: freeze to death or starve to death. Whoever this man was - maybe his father - he did the tough thing: He transported this boy to safety and a chance at life. No one knows how long it really took them to get to Kathmandu, how long it took to find the correct part of the city, how long they were there together, how long Yogendra was alone - or if that's what happened at all. No one knows what happened to that brave man. No one will ever know. All anyone knows for certain is that when the police finally found Yogendra, huddled in a concrete corner, he was crying, screaming and all he could tell them was his first name. And we know that he is ours, and that we're just as lucky as he. The police picked up six other kids the same day in the same part of the city. That was Nov. 1, 2003. 


Now Nepal Children's Organization (Nepal Bal Sangathan -- commonly known as Bal Mandir) is arguably the most controversial NGO in South Asia.

It has long been the center of child trafficking allegations.


Nepal -- Victims of Balmandir (Pound Pup Legacy):

"It is known that in the process of selling children and taking commission present office secretary Rajeshwor Niraula, President Rita Singh Baidya, employee Ram Krishna Subedi, some police personnel and some child trafficking agents are involved."


Paper Orphans documentary posted on the web (PEAR Nepal):

The Terre des hommes/Image Ark documentary on adoption trafficking in Humla (reputed NCO/Bal Mandir kidnappings). Some Humli children ended up in India -- others in the inter-country adoption trade.


Children for sale (Al Jazeera):

The documentary opens with a Bal Mandir case.

The NGO also faces allegations of corruption.


Corruption at Nepal Children's Organization (NCO/Bal Mandir):

"Unfortunately, due to severe corruption within NCO, we had to cancel the project as we were not confident that we would be able to deliver on the objectives without risking Mitrataa’s reputation as an organisation that refuses to pay bribes."

In 2006, the French Foreign Service formally blacklisted NCO/Bal Mandir:

En raison d’une succession de dossiers d’adoption problématiques, et après divers témoignages négatifs de familles adoptantes, il est formellement déconseillé aux familles candidates à une adoption au Népal d’effectuer des démarches auprès des orphelinats « Swastik » et « Nepal Children’s Organization », également dénommé « Bal Mandir ».

Les témoignages recueillis par l’Ambassade de France à Kathmandou font en effet état de sollicitations financières inacceptables, de grande opacité et de lenteurs inexpliquées dans le déroulement des procédures d’adoption menées auprès de ces orphelinats.

Compte tenu du contexte actuel des adoptions au Népal, les familles candidates à une adoption dans ce pays sont invitées à observer la plus grande vigilance dans la conduite de leur procédure.

The chairman of Nepal Children's Organization is Reeta Singh Vaidya:

Board of Directors

Reeta Singh Vaidya

Tulasi Narayan Shrestha
Vice President

Subash K Pokharel
General Secretary

Manohar Gopal Shrestha

Suman Shakya
Deputy General Secretary

Deepak Das Shrestha
Deputy Tresurer

Ashaok Jashwal

Bir Singh Karki

Bishnu Bahadur Shahi

Chij Kumar Shrestha

Dharmendra Paswan

Dhurba Kunwar

Kamal Deep Shrestha

Kiran Babu Shrestha

Krishna Shankar Shah

Menuka Joshi

Raju Aryal

Narayan Shrestha

Sanat Karki

Reeta Singh Vaidya is the sister of Prakash Man Singh (the current Deputy Prime Minister of Nepal and the General Secretary of the Nepali Congress Party):

Reeta and Prakash Man Singh are children of the late Ganesh Man Singh -- the "Father of Democracy" in Nepal:

Reeta Singh Vaidya (also known as Rita Singh Vaidya, Rita Singh Baidya, Reeta Singh Baidya, Rita Singh Baidhya, or Reeta Singh Baidhya) is a member of the Child NGO Federation Nepal, another controversial organization in Kathmandu.

She is listed as the contact for the:

Bir Ganeshman Bal Prativa Puraskar Trust 

Mrs. Reeta Singh Baidya

(A trust in memory of the late Ganesh Man Singh.)

The Kathmandu Post:

Ganeshman Singh Trust to award Bipaswi

On the occasion of the 96th birth anniversary of the late Nepali Congress leader, Bir Ganeshman Singh Children’s Talent Award Trust on Saturday announced to honour 10-year-old Bipaswi Poudyal.

Organising a press conference, Rita Singh Baidhya, president of the executive committee of the Trust, said that Poudyal would be given the Bir Ganeshman Singh Children’s Talent Award 2011 for showing extraordinary talent in the world stage and bagging the titles of Little Miss World Nepal 2011 and Little Miss World 2011. "She has contributed a lot in increasing the country’s pride," she said.

Former NCO/Bal Mandir board member and controversial adoption facilitator Prachanda Raj Pradhan represents the Ganeshman Singh Trust on the CNFN Executive Committee:

Mr. Prachanda Raj Pradhan, I P President

Bir Ganeshman Bal Prativa Puraskar Trust

In 2010, eight embassies wrote asking that the CNFN be removed from all adoption related activities. Pradhan, then head of the CNFN, accused the embassies of being "revengeful."

For more on the Child NGO Federation Nepal, see PEAR Nepal:

Prachanda Raj Pradhan -- head of the Child NGO Federation Nepal (CNFN) 

Pradhan is currently Vice-chairman of the Nepal Law Commission:

While current CNFN Vice-chairman Dilli Ram Giri heads the Central Child Welfare Board:

Child NGO Federation Nepal -- Executive Committee:
Mr. Bhanu Bhakta Dhakal
Mahendra Narayan Nedhi Memorial Foundation (MNNMF)

Vice Chairperson
Mr. Dilli Ram Giri
Society for Integrated Allied - Nepal (SIAN)

Vice Chairperson
Mrs. Pratima Pathak Mudhvary
Women for Women Forum

General Secretary
Mr. Manoj Kumar Kandel
Aama Nepal

Mr. Kedar Dahal
World Wide Organization for Relations and Link Development-Nepal - Children Home (WORLD Nepal)

Mr. Ramesh Dhamala
Sahara Group

Executive Members

Mr. Prachanda Raj Pradhan, I P President
Bir Ganeshman Bal Prativa Puraskar Trust

Mr. Dhirendra Lamsal
Network for Children, Prisoners and Dependants (NCPD)

Mr. Maniraj Shrestha
Portage and Rehabilitation Association Nepal (PRAN)

Mrs. Aruna Karmacharya
Society for Each Other

Mrs. Sulochana Sharma Sigdel
Shakarya Nepal, Kaski

Mr. Suresh Kumar Bhatta
Nepal Children Orphan Home (NECO-HOME)

Ms. Sushma Pokharel
S O S - Children Village Nepal

Mrs. Sadhana Ghimire
Nepal Child Development Center (NCDC)

Mr. Yubaraj Bidrohi
Forum for Child Concern in Nepal

Ms. Chandra Prabha Upadhaya
Social Development Campaign, Nepal

For more on CNFN Secretary Kedar Dahal and CNFN General Secretary Manoj Kumar Kandel, see Trade of Children (PEAR Nepal):

Kedar Dahal is also a former NCO/Bal Mandir board member:

Update -- 1 July 2014

For more on the scandal, see Pound Pup Legacy:

Nepal — Rabin Shrestha (alleged child rapist) & Action for Child Rights International

Ethics, Transparency, Support
~ What All Adoptions Deserve.